-By Vikrant Thakur (Data science student)
An operating system works as an interface between user and the hardware (Computer System). The possibility of one reading this article with an android device is very much because it is one of the most used Mobile-OS in the world. Whether it be using GPS location, Messaging service, Powerful Mobile Applications for entertainment, gaming, clicking pictures and many other things everything has been made easy by android devices. So, let’s explore the history, working and every other detail about Android-OS.
Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of Linux-Kernel and other open-Source Software’s. Initially android was developed by Android.inc which was founded by Andy Rubin, Rich Miner, Nick sears & Chris white in Palo, Alto, California in October 2003. Later, Android.inc was bought by Google in 2005 and it was developed further under the open-handset alliances of Google.
Android is a stack of software components which is roughly divided into five sections and four main layers as shown in below given diagram:
- Each layer of the android is for specific purpose or responsibility which are given below:
- Linux Kernel- The most bottom layer of android components is Linux kernel. This provides a level of abstraction between device hardware & it contains all the essential hardware drivers like camera, keypad & display.
- Android libraries- Running on the top of the kernel, the Android framework was developed with various features. It consists of various C/C++ core libraries with numerous of open source tools.
- Android Run-time- It provides Dalvik Virtual Machine which is like JVM (Java Virtual Machine) in java. The Dalvik VM enables application to run on its own instances.
- Application Framework- This layer provides high level services in the form of java class to application of Android OS. Some of the key services are Activity Manager, Content Providers, Resource Manager, Notification Manager, etc.
- Applications- This layer contains all applications like contacts, Browsers, Games & many more.
These are something through which every power of android device like messaging, using camera, browsing, and others are utilized easily by the user. There are many Pre-Installed applications in devices with Android-OS like G-mail, Google maps, YouTube, Google chrome & many more.
Due its open nature Android-OS also includes many other third-party applications. These applications can be found and installed from the Google play-store app. At present there are lakhs of mobile application on the Google Play-Store where some top downloaded applications include- WhatsApp, Facebook, PUBG game, Instagram and many more.
The first Android version was launched with the T-Mobile G1 aka HTC Dream which ran Android 1.0 out of the box and went against Apple’s iPhone OS 2. Now, the world is soon to get the Android 10.0 update on their Android smartphones and here we take a look at the all the Android versions and their names and how Google has named all the versions of its Android versions.
- Below is the list of all Android versions released by Google after Android 1.0-
Other Android versions and their names:
- Android 6.0- [Android Marshmallow]s
- Android 7.0- [Android Nougat]
- Android 8.0- [Android Oreo]
- Android 9.0- [Android Pie]
Latest version: Android-10
Every new release of Android version come up not only with new features but also solves problems of previous versions. Android-10 have taken the ease of using mobile phone to next level through its new features. Some of the Best features of Android-10 are-
- Live Caption: Whenever one plays any video (Downloaded or Recorded) auto-Captions will be provided by android instantly.
- Smart Reply: To take actions on the reply of the user instantly. In Android 10, you get more than just suggested responses to your messages. You also get recommended actions. So, if a friend asks you out to dinner, your phone will suggest you text “Great, done!!”
- Gesture Navigation: Gestures are now quicker and more intuitive than ever. Go backwards and forwards, pull up the Home-screen and swipe up to see your open apps. All super smooth.
- Dark theme: The latest version of Android comes up with a beautiful Dark-theme for users
- Focus Mode, Family link, Digital Well-Being, etc are some other new feature of Android-OS in its latest version.
Thank you for reading this article!!!
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